Web Analytics Referral Spam

Topseoservices.co Google Analytics Referral Spam

On Friday, December 25, 2015, topseoservices.co appeared in my Google Analytics referrer list for the first time; it does not show in Piwik Analytics, indicating that this is a spoofed referral. In this type of referral spam, the attacker randomly selects Google Analytics IDs and calls Google Analytics and inserts referral entries without ever touching a site. Whether this is to drive commercial traffic to a site or to facilitate download of malware to webmasters’ computers is unknown.

TCPIPutils.com shows that the domain was registered on December 23, 2015 to a private registration firm. TCPIPutils.com shows a number of other domains on the same servers, but none appear to be other common referral spam domains.

curl topseoservices.co produces nothing, indicating that the site redirects; curl -L topseoservices.co shows a web site with a number of Google ads and a reference to semrush.com, which is registered to Dmitri Melnikov of the Bootstrap Marketing Group, LTD. in Nicosia, Cyprus.

Trends in Topseoservices.co Google Searches

There is no good index for the frequency of Google Spam attacks, but Google Trends provides a good look at the frequency with which webmasters query information on a domain name. Figure 1 shows Google Trends for the seven days beginning December 22, 2015, showing that queries for “topseoservices.co” started on December 25, 2015. Figure 2 shows queries since 2004, and does not show data as of this writing.

Figure 1. Google Trends for “topseoservices.co” and “referral spam” for December 22, 2015 through December 28, 2015
Figure 2. Google Trends for “topseoservices.co” and “referral spam” since 2004

Fixing the Problem

My first reaction in addressing referral spam was to add a line to .htaccess to block these spam referrals (see http://www.htaccess-guide.com/deny-visitors-by-referrer/ for a description of how to do this) but with more research, it turns out these referrals weren’t referrals to my site at all, but were insertions of fake referrals into my Google Analytics reports. As was the case with darodar.com, the clear intent is to cause webmasters to go to an unfamiliar site when they see a reference in their Google Analytics reports. Whether the motivation is to generate traffic to their site or to cause webmasters to visit a site that will download malware is unknown.

Based upon the instructions in Removing Referral Spam from Google Analytics, I checked the hostname on the referrals, and all showed “(not set)”–a clear sign that no one ever touched my site and that these were inserted into Google Analytics to get me to click social-buttons.com to generate traffic or download malware onto my computer.

Removing Referral Spam from Google Analytics provides a good description of the problem and some solutions. Understanding and eliminating referrer spam in Google Analytics gives another good description of referral spam and a programmatic solution that is appropriate for plug-in developers but not for administrators of WordPress, Joomla and other content management system (CMS) based sites.

An alternative is to switch to self-hosted Piwik for your web analytics; if you do this, it will be immediately clear that the vast majority of Google Analytics referral spam is of the spoofed variety rather than the crawler variety. Piwik does not have the advertising integration nor does it have the demographic information, but for many small-traffic sites it can provide much more information. See Using Piwik as an Alternative to Google Analytics on this web site for more information on why Piwik might work for you and how to implement it.

Useful Commands and Web Sites for Investigating Referrers

For investigating a referrer, here are some useful commands and web sites:

  • TCPIPutils is a great site for looking up data on an domain or IP address
  • For domain registrations, the command line whois social-buttons.com is very convenient as is https://www.whois.net/
  • For IP lookups, dig social-buttons.com is convenient, as is http://ip-lookup.net/index.php
  • Better Business Bureau
  • To view a site in character mode so that malware doesn’t get downloaded, use curl and curl -L. These are commonly installed on Linux machines, but will require additional software on Windows and OS X, as discussed below.
  • To look up a lot of information on an IP address in one place http://www.tcpiputils.com/browse/ip-address will give you a lot of information quickly.

Command Line Utilities

To use the whois, dig and curl commands on Windows and OS X, you will need to install additional software:

  • On Windows, install Cygwin and add the curl package.
  • On OS X, install MacPorts and add the curl package.

Cygwin and MacPorts have many additional command line and graphical utilities that make life easier in Windows and OS X.

More Information

For more information on referral spam, see

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